Scenes Behind Home Missions in early 1920s New Zealand

My research into early 1920s Home Mission Stations has seen me dipping into the Harvest Field, the Presbyterian Women’s Missionary Union (PWMU) magazine. First published in 1906, its aim to motivate and inform women on how to achieve their missionary goals has resulted in a goldmine of information, often not found elsewhere.

During World War I the PWMU were encouraged to support Home Missionaries alongside their overseas mission activity. A monthly article began to appear in the Harvest Field, which gave a vivid insight into their ministries successes and many trials. Admittedly, the aim of the publicity was to garner the sympathies of the readers, but there is little doubt that the expectations of a back-block ministry quite often bordered on the unreasonable. Although written just under 100 years ago, the Home Missions Director, Rev. George Budd’s reports have a familiar ring to those tales my parents told of the mid-1940s and early 1950s; little, it seems, had altered in 30 years.

Financing a back-block church where a scattered population came together infrequently, from a wide area, had always been difficult. The Committee had to plead, if not bully, larger congregations into giving financial support through special collections, donations and even bequests, and cajole an already pressured PWMU to donate goods and their time. By the 1920s, 117 Home Mission Stations had been established, staffed by 87 men; 85% of the Stations were beyond the bounds of small towns. Budd, early in his term as Director, recognised the role women could take in the Home Mission field and the Committee employed several over the years.

A road Rev John Newlands travelled to worship at Kumara on the West Coast in 1912. PRC P-A22-14-55001

The stipend rate for Home Missionaries was unrealistic, accommodation often-below standard, and transport and access to many of the remote areas not fully developed. Budd’s reports convey his deep concern. He considered inadequate provisions hindered the ability of the Home Missionaries to experience a ministry that would ‘fulfil their call to service’. Transport was a regular topic to report. On his travels he discovered that getting from place to place in these back-block stations was ‘no mean feat’. Budd bemoaned his fate after a long journey inland on one occasion. ‘The springs were in some cases quite forgotten when the trap was built,’ cushions, he continued, had ‘the stuffing omitted … and the missionary is not only expected to ‘walk uprightly’ but to ‘sit uprightly’ with no comfortable back-board for support. One occasion after travelling in an open buggy to attend two Sunday services, over 45kms of muddy road, in steady rain prompted Budd to take action. He placed an appeal through the Harvest Field for warm socks, ‘canvas lined trap’ rugs, and oilskin rain jackets, to be sent to Missionaries. ‘The winter is coming on,’ he wrote, ‘and many a man will be contemplating the dull drudgery of muddy roads, the discouragement of small congregations, and the many trials incident to the season.’

Service conducted around a pool table. Location unknown.
Presbyterian Research Centre

The physical strain of travelling from one preaching place to another on any one Sunday, the infrequency of worship in the more isolated centres, low attendance and the places used for worship also provoked his critique. A school classroom, a poorly built and draughty hall or a back room of a hotel did not come up to Budd’s expectations as ideal places of worship. ‘The pleasant environment of a church, the impressive music of a majestic organ, the rich choral work of a choir – all was missing’. Mind you, this somewhat embellished vision of a place of worship did not fit many worship centres, other than a few in large towns and cities. Budd may well have been missing his home parish of Devonport, as he was away on Home Mission duties for weeks at a time.

The ‘manse’ in the back-blocks were often humble dwellings in comparison to a fully sanctioned parish where simple guidelines applied. Single men described the one or two room shacks as barely suitable, and family accommodation was generally inadequate. There was a lack of modern-day conveniences of the time. Molly Shannon tells of their weekly bathing in the stream below the manse. Laundry facilities in a number of ‘manses’ were outside under a small lean-too proving to be very inconvenient for the women who undertook the heavy task of using a copper and mangle. One wife described the kitchen range as puffing out more smoke than heat and badly designed kitchens resulted ‘in walking miles’ in a day just to prepare food, stated another. Electric light and the telephone had reached few of the remote areas by 1920 and where it had the manse generally was the last to be wired up. The burden of these many discomforts fell heavily on the women and children.

Coupled with the many inadequacies of housing was the low stipend payment. ‘It has often been a struggle with poverty’, stated one Home Missionary. He added that without ‘the charity and generosity of our PWMUs’, many Home Missionaries would not have managed thus far. Another noted he had been in the service for 17 years on a stipend of $200 to $220pa. Yet another expressed what many also considered, ‘time and again I have thought of resigning’. On an average, the stipend was $300pa lower than ordained ministry but it carried the same expectations. Home Missionaries were excluded from the Beneficiary Fund and many had used their savings to make ends meet. The sacrifice was great. What’s more, the Church’s policy to transfer Home Missionaries every two or three years added further pressure and expense that few could sustain.

A questionnaire on stipends Budd circulated ‘resulted in depressing reading’, but even this did not stir the church fathers. A liveable remuneration did not justify the extra pressure on congregations, they opined. Although the General Assembly debated Home Mission stipends regularly, and did offer occasional relief, some extra theological training programmes, or ordain those with some qualifications, the stipend remained well below the standard stipend. This was partly due to what was perceived as the ‘unqualified nature’ of their status. Budd supported the respondents comments, reinforcing their ‘rights, which they had earned by steadfast service’ and agreed that the church ‘cannot ask such men to be simply nothings and nobodies’. It’s worth noting that the majority of Home Missionaries were unable to speak or vote at General Assembly and therefore, relied on sympathetic supporters to present their ‘case’.

Rev George Budd, Director of Home Missions from 1921-1938.. Presbyterian Research Centre, P-L-18013

For all Budd’s efforts, publicity and his visits to congregations, funding for both Maori and Home Missions was a constant exercise of persuasion. Budd reminded his readers they were ‘doers of the Word, not just listeners, and therefore not to deceive themselves’. People who took no action he compared to ‘aspen leaves, tremulous, sensitive, quivering, which sway with agitated responsiveness with every breath of wind, but though they are moving all day long, the night finds them just where they were in the morning’. Through his 17 years as Director, Budd stood by the Home Mission team doing what he could to improve their lot. Unfortunately, for researchers and Presbyterian Archives staff today,  Budd decreed on his retirement that the ‘old stuff ‘ he and others accumulated would be destroyed. We are fortunate his reports have survived along with some personal correspondence found in ministers collections.

There have been arguments for and against the success or otherwise of the Home Mission scheme. The strategy to employ theologically untrained missionaries led to a two-tier ministry within the Presbyterian Church that existed into the 1960s. Even though ministry in the back-blocks was challenging and often difficult and lonely, a large majority gave dedicated service, without which the Church’s goal to meet the spiritual needs of many in outlying communities may never have been carried out.





Synod Personalities No 1. The Very Rev. Henry Barton 1880-1966

Henry Havelock Barton, began his three year ministry training at the Knox Theological Hall under the tutelage of Professors Michael Watt and John Dunlop in early 1902. Belonging to a new generation of ministers, HH Barton, as he was generally known, spent 58 of his 61year ministry in the Otago/Southland area.   A scholar of English Literature and French language in which he received a Master of Arts, first class honours degree, he excelled in his theological studies gaining the top honours in 1904.

Beginning Ministry:

The only parish outside of Otago and Southland Barton served was his first at Westport, on the west coast of the South Island, from January 1905 to July 1907. Westport was an old gold and coal-mining centre that had moved on from a frontier town to an emerging major port for the region. The population stood at around 3000 in 1901. The parish of some 150 families included a large and often inaccessible outlying area, north and south of Westport, made up of small coal mining communities where many Scots resided; a future focus of mission outreach for the newly installed Barton.

Barton immediately impressed the congregation and Session with his preaching and administrative strengths and by 10 July 1905 the Session rejoiced at the largest attendance ever at a Communion Service. His evangelical zeal encouraged the congregation to support the opening of a Home Mission Station at Denniston and Burnett’s Face, isolated coal mining communities high on a plateau overlooking the Tasman Sea. By July 1905 a missionary was in place and a section purchased for a church.

Burnetts Face coal mine, above Denniston. c.1900

Burnetts Face coal mine, above Denniston. c.1900

Although an encouraging beginning in these initial years it would never be an easy ministry and visiting church leaders found few positive words of support for the community.    The Rev. George Budd, Superintendent for the Home Mission, in 1925 found Denniston and Burnett’s Face to be ‘dismal’, and dotted with  ‘crude residences’.   It struggled as a mission charge with the support of Westport parish until the early-1960s. With the modernising of the mining industry Denniston was no longer viable and the families moved on.

During 1906 while Moderator of Westland Presbytery Barton aimed to raise interest among the local Congregations in overseas missionary activities. The women of the Westport parish formed a Women’s Missionary Union under his direction, the first in the region and one of the earliest within the national Presbyterian Women’s Missionary Union that formed in 1906. The Presbytery visitation report carried out on the eve of his departure to Limestone Plains Parish in July 1907, noted an improved spiritual tone, increased attendance at worship, the establishment of young women’s and men’s Bible Classes and also a Christian Endeavour group. All important for the survival of rural parishes the report noted with pleasure the building of a new manse and the increased payments in stipend. He left a disappointed Westport congregation in ‘excellent heart’. Barton’s first ministry at Westport set the pattern for all his future parish ministries, which are reported on with enthusiasm, highlighting his unflagging determination to bring the ‘riches of the Bible and God’s grace’ to his congregation.

Foreign Missions Committee:

Henry Havelock Barton and his wife Dora on their missionary tour Canton, South China in 1922

Henry Havelock Barton and his wife Dora on their missionary tour Canton, South China in 1922

In 1921 and a break from parish ministry he took up a position as secretary for the General Assembly’s Foreign Missions Committee, replacing Alexander Don, a position he held until November 1927. In taking up this position Barton experienced some conflict between a sense of his real desire for parish ministry and his passion for mission. During his term he visited the three mission fields in South China, the Punjab and Vanuatu. The experience he ably used while touring New Zealand, speaking at conferences, to women’s missionary groups and writing study material, especially for the Bible Class Movement. In 1926 he was the principal secretary and organiser of the John Mott Conference in Dunedin. John Mott, a highly prominent figure, can be described as the founder of a new ecumenical movement when he formed the World Student Christian Movement in 1895. At the time of his visit to New Zealand in 1926, he held the position of International Chairman. Barton’s skills as an organiser were further enhanced with a successful New Zealand wide Presbyterian mission campaign under the leadership of the South China Missionary, Rev. George McNeur, while Moderator, in 1927. He resigned in November that year and returned to parish ministry at Lawrence, a small rural town in the Clutha district, once known as the gateway to the goldfields.

Mission Campaign Team in Auckland 1927. Henry Barton Secretary of Foreign Missions Committee 6th from the left back row, The V. Rev. George McNeur centre front row.

Mission Campaign Team in Auckland 1927. Henry Barton Secretary of Foreign Missions Committee 6th from the left back row, The V. Rev. George McNeur centre front row.

Synod of Otago and Southland:

While Moderator of the Synod in 1930 Barton successfully moved the Synod from an unimaginative church court, which reflected a general air of malaise, towards a Synod with a greater focus on its purpose as understood by the 1901 Union Act of Agreement. This he interpreted as encouraging a far closer spirit of cooperation between the Synod and the national Church. The previous decade or more, the Synod had focused on its responsibility of grant disbursements and little else. By re-introducing the Synod Missions Committee, which had gone into abeyance during World War 1, to support the national church to disseminate foreign mission information and church extension work to southern parishes Barton believed would reignite some fervor into its activities . The establishment of an Advisory Committee to assist Presbyteries was another means of supporting the work of the wider church but in its first incarnation had a short life..

Barton remained active on the Synod Mission Committee until the early 1960s. He liaised with the Otago Bible Society and was its President for many years, and the Colportage Society in which Synod was actively involved. He also served on the Synod Theological Hall Committee for 10 years first as Secretary and later as Convener. His initiatives in 1930 opened up new opportunities for Synod within its narrowly defined function under the General Assembly and have enabled the Synod to continue to broaden its horizons today

The extension of the Kingdom of God was his greatest desire, he believed in a personal evangelism as a means of renewing a society, which required ‘the light that only Christ can give’.

The General Assembly appointed Barton as Moderator in 1935. Part 2 of this post will develop his story further.

Ref:  Presbytery of Westland Minute Book, Presbyterian Outlook, Foreign Missions Committee Minute Books.